must not let the details of the argument in this passage obscure the great and
central truth – the surpassing greatness of Jesus Christ. As you read through
the passage, remember that theme.
1This Melchizedek was king of Salem and priest of God Most
High. He met Abraham returning from the defeat of the kings and blessed him, 2and Abraham gave him a tenth of everything. First, his name means
“king of righteousness”; then also, “king of Salem” means “king of peace.” 3Without father or mother, without genealogy, without beginning of
days or end of life, like the Son of God he remains a priest forever.
4Just think how great he was: Even the patriarch Abraham
gave him a tenth of the plunder! 5Now the law requires the descendants of
Levi who become priests to collect a tenth from the people—that is, their
brothers—even though their brothers are descended from Abraham. 6This man, however, did not trace his descent from Levi, yet he
collected a tenth from Abraham and blessed him who had the promises. 7And without doubt the lesser person is blessed by the greater. 8In the one case, the tenth is collected by men who die; but in the
other case, by him who is declared to be living. 9One might even say that Levi, who collects the tenth, paid the
tenth through Abraham, 10because when Melchizedek met Abraham, Levi
was still in the body of his ancestor.
11If perfection could have been attained
through the Levitical priesthood (for on the basis of it the law was given to
the people), why was there still need for another priest to come—one in the
order of Melchizedek, not in the order of Aaron? 12For when there is a change of the priesthood, there must also be a
change of the law. 13He of whom these things are said belonged to a
different tribe, and no one from that tribe has ever served at the altar. 14For it is clear that our Lord descended from Judah, and in regard
to that tribe Moses said nothing about priests. 15And what we have said is even more clear if another priest like
Melchizedek appears, 16one who has become a priest not on the basis
of a regulation as to his ancestry but on the basis of the power of an
indestructible life. 17For it is declared:
“You are a priest forever,
in the order of Melchizedek.”£
18The former regulation is set aside because
it was weak and useless 19(for the law made nothing perfect), and a
better hope is introduced, by which we draw near to God.
20And it was not without an oath! Others
became priests without any oath, 21but he became a priest with an oath when
God said to him:
“The Lord has sworn
and will not change his mind:
‘You are a priest forever.’ “£
of this oath, Jesus has become the guarantee of a better covenant.
23Now there have been many of those priests,
since death prevented them from continuing in office; 24but because Jesus lives forever, he has a permanent priesthood. 25Therefore he is able to save completely£ those who come to God through him,
because he always lives to intercede for them.
26Such a high priest meets our need—one who
is holy, blameless, pure, set apart from sinners, exalted above the heavens. 27Unlike the other high priests, he does not need to offer
sacrifices day after day, first for his own sins, and then for the sins of the
people. He sacrificed for their sins once for all when he offered himself. 28For
the law appoints as high priests men who are weak; but the oath, which came
after the law, appointed the Son, who has been made perfect forever.
argument sounds strange to the ears of a modern, evangelical Christian.
Perhaps that is because we have discarded liturgy. At any rate, it is now
sufficiently unknown that some words of explanation must come first.
The Formal Argument
us begin by acknowledging the audience for whom this letter was written: the
Jewish Christians of the first century. They are a people almost completely
apart from us. But there is one fact we do need to recognize: they worshiped
at the Temple. The Scripture tells us that Jerusalem is the place where God
put his Name; that the original temple was confirmed by God to be that most
specific place. If one bit of geography on earth could be said to be holiest,
this is it.
we must remember that this Temple was a part of their ordinary experience.
Though this letter will provide the basis on which we determine that Temple
worship is no longer required, it was certainly their habit to go there. So
Paul uses what they know to instruct them in what they should know.
Step by step
us consider his argument step by step, seeing it as they would.
accepted as indisputable fact (which we deny) that the father is greater
than the son. So, in their view, Abraham was greater than Levi.
also accept the fact that “the greater blesses the lesser.” Therefore
this Melchizedek was greater than Abraham. This is also seen in the fact
that Abraham tithes the spoils of war to this Melchizedek.
if A is greater than B, and B is greater than C, then A is greater than
C. So Melchizedek is greater than Levi.
is Aaron’s ancestor. So (by the same argument) Melchizedek is greater
Aaron and Melchizedek are priests – but of different “orders.” They are
not of the same priesthood. Melchizedek is greater than Aaron; but does
that mean his priesthood is also greater?
can only determine the answer to that question in the information which
God has chosen to give us. We know a lot about Aaron and his priesthood;
what do we know about this Melchizedek?
name means “king of righteousness.” Interestingly, Aaron means “light
bringer.” One brings the light; the other carries it intrinsically.
is also “king of peace” (a play on the word salem, which means peace, but
also refers to Jerusalem). There is no royalty to Aaron.
a distinctively Jewish argument, we find that Melchizedek is eternal. How
do we know? No genealogy; no parents. How could the Scriptures omit
such detail for one so important, unless such details do not exist?
telling difference is this: Aaron’s priesthood is based upon God’s
choice. God makes it clear that it is not Aaron’s worthiness; the
argument indeed is that God will select someone like this as an indication
that no one is worthy. But Melchizedek bases his priesthood on his
Aaron’s priesthood had no oath; Melchizedek’s had an oath of God.
Welcome to the club. Commentators differ on whether or not Melchizedek is
simply a type (a picture) of Christ, or was the pre-incarnate Son. It does not
matter; the point is simply this. The priesthood of Christ is superior to the
priesthood of Aaron – just as Christ is superior to Aaron.
Consider How Great
like the King James Version in verse 4: “Consider how great…” It is in the
form of a command where the NIV carries the idea of a suggestion. Please humor
me in this; for I believe you should consider how great Christ is.
Why should we consider?
may well ask, why should we do that?
because it strengthens our hope. “My hope is built on nothing less than
Jesus’ blood and righteousness,” as the old hymn goes. His greatness
strengthens my hope of eternal life.
because it encourages our faith. We need to remember that Jesus cares for
us – and has the power to change our lives. Our faith is not
pie-in-the-sky, but rather the power of Christ in our lives.
great importance is this: knowing his greatness helps keep us from sin.
If we think of our Lord as a only a good teacher, with no control over the
universe, we miss the mark, badly. His power is available for his
purposes, one of which is to keep us from sin.
of the sad facts of the Reformation is that evangelical Christians are deprived
of the discipline of devotional worship of Jesus. It seems so “Catholic.” But
here we have it laid out for us.
Consider his relationship
greatness is in who you know:
his relationship to God. He is so much divine that we call him the Son of
God. And such he is; he is “of the same essence” as God the Father, and
therefore an equal before him.
his relationship to men. He is not “part God, part man” but completely
God and completely man. He knows your pain; think of the humiliation he
went through so that you might know God.
his relationship to the church. The most common figure used for the
church is “the bride of Christ.” Anyone living in this time would have
known (contrary to our modern thinking) that the bride is in submission to
the groom. The church is (or perhaps was; I don’t know how far the rot
extends) in submission to her Lord. God’s living body on earth, the
church, is to be subject to Jesus.
do not know how to define greatness to any greater degree than that.
Consider his history
is not just who he is; consider also what he has done.
of the humility of his birth. The one who created the universe descends
to the point of becoming a human being. Even in doing that, his birth was
to humble parents in the lowest of circumstances. This he did for us.
Holy Spirit saw to it that he was “born of woman.” Meaning, of course,
the virgin birth, it also means he was without sin. If that isn’t
greatness, the word has no meaning.
the life he lived. Thirty years in obscurity, then an itinerant preacher
– and yet his words still guide men today. By his teaching he has shaped
even more the death he died. He was not only killed to atone for us, it
was done in humiliation. Greatness is shown in what it will endure.
his resurrection. He has done what no man could do: broken the power of
death. Our return from the grave is sure, for his word proclaims it.
his ascension. Having endured all that, for us, he returned to his
Father, going back to his place in eternity.
is greatness in service, and there is no greater example than this.
is a dangerous word. The student should be wary in turning the “therefore”
corner, for it usually precedes something of power.
Able to save completely
his greatness he is able to save “completely.”
he is able to save … us! No matter what we have done, no matter how vile
we are, his grace is sufficient.
only us, but those of whom we despair. We look at someone and say, “he
will never come to Christ.” His power extends beyond their sins - and
beyond our sight.
only the vile, but also the unpleasant – those people we’d really rather
not associate with. These, too, are within his sight.
Lives to intercede
is his purpose! He did not ascend to the Father simply to evade us on the
planet. Rather, his purpose is to intercede for us, pleading with the Father
in regard to our weakness.
you see what a model that is for us? If you walk away from this lesson with
nothing else, walk away with this: “As Christ intercedes for you, so you
should intercede for others.”
Meets our need
cannot say for your part, but for mine I would not want to meet God the Father
face to face – without Jesus Christ. I am not fit even to be in his presence.
How then can I be saved from the wrath of God? I need some help; I need
someone to plead my case and beg my forgiveness. Jesus meets this need:
meets my need in purity. Where I am unclean in sin, he is perfect in his
purity. He can take my case to the father.
meets my need in position. I have no intrinsic standing before God; I
have no right to say anything to God. I’m the pot, he’s the potter,
remember? But in Christ I have the standing to speak to the Almighty.
meets my need in power. Trying to live in imitation of him is not easy –
but he has power to uphold me in the attempt.
then, how great Jesus truly is.